Outreach Israel Ministries
12 December, 2019

Ephesians 1:1 – PME Point

Outreach Israel Ministries and Messianic Apologetics need your help as we enter into 2020, and the third decade of the Twenty-First Century. This new decade is going to see the Messianic movement have theological and spiritual issues thrust upon it that most are not ready for. We have been preparing for this time for the past several years, and now it is time for us to speak out.

Our overarching ministry theme for this next decade is: How do we not lose the next generation?


Paul, an apostle of Messiah Yeshua by the will of God, to the holy ones who are also faithful in Messiah Yeshua (Ephesians 1:1, PME)


The Greek source text reads tois hagiois tois ousin [en Ephesō] kai pistois en Christō Iēsou, with a significant textual variant present. Various early witnesses lack en Ephesō or “in Ephesus” for 1:1. There are various major versions, and other specialty versions, which have chosen to exclude this from their rendering of 1:1:

“Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, To the saints who are also faithful in Christ Jesus” (RSV).

“PAUL, by the will of God an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the saints who are faithful in Jesus Christ” (Moffat New Testament).

“Paul, by God’s will an apostle of Jesus Christ, to God’s people who are faithful in Jesus Christ” (Williams New Testament).

“Paul, by the will of God an apostle of Christ Jesus, to God’s holy people, faithful in Christ Jesus” (New Jerusalem Bible).

“From: Paul, an apostle of the Anointed One Jesus through God’s plan. To: The people devoted to God who are faithful to the Anointed One Jesus” (Source New Testament).

Comfort, New Testament Text & Translation Commentary, pp 577-579 favors the view that en Ephesō is not original to Paul’s letter, and supports the proposition that this was a general letter or encyclical to assemblies in the vicinity of Asia Minor. He actually favors 1:1 being rendered as “Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through God’s will to the saints living in ______ and faithful in Christ Jesus,” with a blank space.


The Practical Messianic Edition of the Apostolic Scriptures or PME is a specialty edition of the New Testament, based on the 1901 American Standard Version, incorporating the conclusions defended in Messianic Apologetics’ Practical Messianic commentary series and other publications.